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Non Operating Room Anesthesia




  • Non-operating room anesthesia (NORA) refers to all procedures performed in non operating room environments 



  • Location

    • Crowded and unfamiliar

    • Limited access to patient (i.e. C-arm at patient’s head)

    • Monitoring may be limited and in unfamiliar positions

    • Help is far away

    • Equipment may be lacking (difficult airway cart, emergency supplies)

  • Personnel

    • Interventionist or proceduralist or nurses/assistants may be unfamiliar with conduct of anesthesia and anesthesiologists skillset

    • Potential for:

      • ad hoq requests

      • scheduling inconsistencies

      • poor communication

      • less patience for “anesthesia time"

  • Patient

    • Range from "healthy" to “too sick for surgery"

    • Potential for inadequate preoperative anesthesia work-up


  • Chung M, Vazquez R.  Non-Operating Room Anesthesia. In: Gropper MA, editor. Miller's Anesthesia, Ninth Edition, 2020.  Elsevier, Philadelphia.  p. 2284-2312.

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